Modality Performed Procedure Step Management Service Examples

The DICOM Modality Performed Procedure Step Management (MPPS) service allows an Application Entity to log or track procedures performed by a modality through the N-CREATE, N-SET, N-EVENT-REPORT and N-GET services. It has three SOP Classes:

  • Modality Performed Procedure Step SOP Class, used with N-CREATE and N-SET to create and set the SOP Instance’s attribute values

  • Modality Performed Procedure Step Retrieve SOP Class, used with N-GET to retrieve the SOP Instance’s attribute values

  • Modality Performed Procedure Step Notification SOP Class, used with N-EVENT-REPORT to notify a peer of the status of a procedure.

MPPS is usually used in combination with the Modality Worklist Service Class to provide the modality a mechanism for notifying the RIS (or PACS) that requested the procedure of it’s current status. The modality is typically the SCU and the RIS (or PACS) the SCP.

MPPS - Create SCU

Associate with a peer and request the use of the MPPS Service to create a new SOP Instance.

from pydicom.dataset import Dataset
from pydicom.uid import generate_uid

from pynetdicom import AE, debug_logger
from pynetdicom.sop_class import (
from pynetdicom.status import code_to_category


ct_study_uid = generate_uid()
mpps_instance_uid = generate_uid()

# Our N-CREATE *Attribute List*
def build_attr_list():
    ds = Dataset()
    # Performed Procedure Step Relationship
    ds.ScheduledStepAttributesSequence = [Dataset()]
    step_seq = ds.ScheduledStepAttributesSequence
    step_seq[0].StudyInstanceUID = ct_study_uid
    step_seq[0].ReferencedStudySequence = []
    step_seq[0].AccessionNumber = '1'
    step_seq[0].RequestedProcedureID = "1"
    step_seq[0].RequestedProcedureDescription = 'Some procedure'
    step_seq[0].ScheduledProcedureStepID = "1"
    step_seq[0].ScheduledProcedureStepDescription = 'Some procedure step'
    step_seq[0].ScheduledProcedureProtocolCodeSequence = []
    ds.PatientName = 'Test^Test'
    ds.PatientID = '123456'
    ds.PatientBirthDate = '20000101'
    ds.PatientSex = 'O'
    ds.ReferencedPatientSequence = []
    # Performed Procedure Step Information
    ds.PerformedProcedureStepID = "1"
    ds.PerformedStationAETitle = 'SOMEAE'
    ds.PerformedStationName = 'Some station'
    ds.PerformedLocation = 'Some location'
    ds.PerformedProcedureStepStartDate = '20000101'
    ds.PerformedProcedureStepStartTime = '1200'
    ds.PerformedProcedureStepStatus = 'IN PROGRESS'
    ds.PerformedProcedureStepDescription = 'Some description'
    ds.PerformedProcedureTypeDescription = 'Some type'
    ds.PerformedProcedureCodeSequence = []
    ds.PerformedProcedureStepEndDate = None
    ds.PerformedProcedureStepEndTime = None
    # Image Acquisition Results
    ds.Modality = 'CT'
    ds.StudyID = "1"
    ds.PerformedProtocolCodeSequence = []
    ds.PerformedSeriesSequence = []

    return ds

# Initialise the Application Entity
ae = AE()

# Add a requested presentation context

# Associate with peer AE at IP and port 11112
assoc = ae.associate("", 11112)

if assoc.is_established:
    # Use the N-CREATE service to send a request to create a SOP Instance
    # should return the Instance itself
    status, attr_list = assoc.send_n_create(

    # Check the status of the display system request
    if status:
        print('N-CREATE request status: 0x{0:04x}'.format(status.Status))

        # If the MPPS request succeeded the status category may
        # be either Success or Warning
        category = code_to_category(status.Status)
        if category in ['Warning', 'Success']:
            # `attr_list` is a pydicom Dataset containing attribute values
        print('Connection timed out, was aborted or received invalid response')

    # Release the association
    print('Association rejected, aborted or never connected')


Once the MPPS SOP Instance has successfully been created, the modality can send one or more N-SET requests to the MPPS SCP in order to update the attributes of the SOP Instance. When the procedure has been completed a final N-SET request is sent containing a Modification List with an (0040,0252) Performed Procedure Step Status of "COMPLETED".

# Continuing on from the previous example...
# Modality performs the procedure, update the MPPS SCP
# In performing the procedure a series with ten CT Image Storage
# SOP Instances is generated
ct_series_uid = generate_uid()
ct_instance_uids = [generate_uid() for ii in range(10)]

# Our N-SET *Modification List*
def build_mod_list(series_instance, sop_instances):
    ds = Dataset()
    ds.PerformedSeriesSequence = [Dataset()]

    series_seq = ds.PerformedSeriesSequence
    series_seq[0].PerformingPhysicianName = None
    series_seq[0].ProtocolName = "Some protocol"
    series_seq[0].OperatorName = None
    series_seq[0].SeriesInstanceUID = series_instance
    series_seq[0].SeriesDescription = "some description"
    series_seq[0].RetrieveAETitle = None
    series_seq[0].ReferencedImageSequence = []

    img_seq = series_seq[0].ReferencedImageSequence
    for uid in sop_instances:
        img_ds = Dataset()
        img_ds.ReferencedSOPClassUID = CTImageStorage
        img_ds.ReferencedSOPInstanceUID = uid

    series_seq[0].ReferencedNonImageCompositeSOPInstanceSequence = []

    return ds

# Our final N-SET *Modification List*
final_ds = Dataset()
final_ds.PerformedProcedureStepStatus = "COMPLETED"
final_ds.PerformedProcedureStepEndDate = "20000101"
final_ds.PerformedProcedureStepEndTime = "1300"

# Associate with peer again
assoc = ae.associate("", 11112)

if assoc.is_established:
    # Use the N-SET service to update the SOP Instance
    status, attr_list = assoc.send_n_set(
        build_mod_list(ct_series_uid, ct_instance_uids),

    if status:
        print('N-SET request status: 0x{0:04x}'.format(status.Status))
        category = code_to_category(status.Status)
        if category in ['Warning', 'Success']:
            # Send completion
            status, attr_list = assoc.send_n_set(
            if status:
                print('Final N-SET request status: 0x{0:04x}'.format(status.Status))
        print('Connection timed out, was aborted or received invalid response')



The following represents a toy implementation of an MPPS SCP (Modality Performed Procedure Step SOP Class only).

Check the handler implementation documentation to see the requirements for the evt.EVT_N_CREATE and evt.EVT_N_SET handlers.

from pydicom.dataset import Dataset

from pynetdicom import AE, evt
from pynetdicom.sop_class import ModalityPerformedProcedureStep

managed_instances = {}

# Implement the evt.EVT_N_CREATE handler
def handle_create(event):
    # MPPS' N-CREATE request must have an *Affected SOP Instance UID*
    req = event.request
    if req.AffectedSOPInstanceUID is None:
        # Failed - invalid attribute value
        return 0x0106, None

    # Can't create a duplicate SOP Instance
    if req.AffectedSOPInstanceUID in managed_instances:
        # Failed - duplicate SOP Instance
        return 0x0111, None

    # The N-CREATE request's *Attribute List* dataset
    attr_list = event.attribute_list

    # Performed Procedure Step Status must be 'IN PROGRESS'
    if "PerformedProcedureStepStatus" not in attr_list:
        # Failed - missing attribute
        return 0x0120, None
    if attr_list.PerformedProcedureStepStatus.upper() != 'IN PROGRESS':
        return 0x0106, None

    # Skip other tests...

    # Create a Modality Performed Procedure Step SOP Class Instance
    #   DICOM Standard, Part 3, Annex B.17
    ds = Dataset()

    # Add the SOP Common module elements (Annex C.12.1)
    ds.SOPClassUID = ModalityPerformedProcedureStep
    ds.SOPInstanceUID = req.AffectedSOPInstanceUID

    # Update with the requested attributes

    # Add the dataset to the managed SOP Instances
    managed_instances[ds.SOPInstanceUID] = ds

    # Return status, dataset
    return 0x0000, ds

# Implement the evt.EVT_N_SET handler
def handle_set(event):
    req = event.request
    if req.RequestedSOPInstanceUID not in managed_instances:
        # Failure - SOP Instance not recognised
        return 0x0112, None

    ds = managed_instances[req.RequestedSOPInstanceUID]

    # The N-SET request's *Modification List* dataset
    mod_list = event.attribute_list

    # Skip other tests...


    # Return status, dataset
    return 0x0000, ds

handlers = [(evt.EVT_N_CREATE, handle_create), (evt.EVT_N_SET, handle_set)]

# Initialise the Application Entity and specify the listen port
ae = AE()

# Add the supported presentation context

# Start listening for incoming association requests
ae.start_server(("", 11112), evt_handlers=handlers)